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apologetic problem connected with the origin of Christianity," 1 and he 
admirably distinguishes the vital part of the problem : is the Christ of 
John the Jesus of the Synoptists ? Here again the chief interest in the author 
lies not so much in the presentation of positive evidence as in establishing the 
proper view-point and attitude of the apologist towards critical questions. 
Granted that there are differences, even discrepancies, between the Fourth 
Gospel and those of the Synoptists, how far do " the alleged phenomena 
affect the religious value of the Fourth Gospel as a source for the knowledge 

of Christ Can we say that this Gospel as a whole, in its general drift 

and tendency, is indeed true to the spirit of Jesus, as we have become 
acquainted with it by aid of the first three Gospels ? " The answer that Pro- 
fessor Bruce gives to these questions is not unqualified. Certain differences in 
presentation certainly do present themselves, but they are not sufficient to 
weaken the respect and confidence due the Fourth Gospel. They are the 
necessary attendants of the character of the Gospel as supplementary to the 
three Synoptic Gospels. Christ is the sum of the four, and through them is 
He seen to be the Lord of all, and Christianity the absolute religion. 

It is obviously impossible to reproduce the entire argument of a profound 
work like this of Professor Bruce. Only a careful study can show the singular 
accuracy and grasp of thought that mark every page. One is impressed 
constantly by the spirit of fairness and the determination to discover truth. 
Perhaps as a result of this impartiality the work has not proved satisfactory 
to all shades of religious thinkers. The conservative may very likely be disap- 
pointed at any readiness to give weight to the conclusions of criticism, and 
the followers of Wellhausen or Pfleiderer may very well be troubled over the 
vigorous treatment accorded their masters. But nevertheless the work is the 
natural outcome of an age of transition, and will be exceedingly helpful to 
the man who has accepted few or many of the results of criticism, but is yet 
anxious to maintain his faith in the supernatural, and above all in an imma- 
nent and self-revealing God. To others it will at least bring the assurance 
that truth has nothing to fear from criticism, and the conviction that the 
Christian religion has no need of any support that is not true. 

S. M. 

From Malachi to Matthew. Outlines of the History of Judea from 4404- 
B. C. By R. Waddy Moss, Tutor in Classics, Didsbury College. Lon- 
don : Charles H. Kelly, 2 Castle Street, City Rd., E. C. Pp. xiv., 256. 
This little handbook attempts " to do nothing more than outline the his- 
tory of Judea in the centuries that elapsed between the prophecy of Malachi 
and the event that forms the first theme of the New Testament." 

The author has rigidly kept to this aim, refusing to be led off into details, 
and, on the whole, has maintained a very good historical perspective. The 

1 P. 466. 


treatment of the confused days of the later Maccabees is especially suc- 

There is undoubtedly need of some such work as this. Few, even among 
intelligent students of the New Testament, are acquainted with the events of 
the fierce epoch that gave birth to so much of the Messianic hope of the time 
of Jesus. The large works are too tedious, and there are few smaller works 
that cover the period in sufficient detail for the popular taste. The present 
work avoids the two dangers, and is at once scholarly and interesting. It 
possesses the further merit of an arrangement that is chronological rather 
than topical. 

It is at least questionable whether the book does not lose somewhat in use- 
fulness from its failure to give references to the literature on the period. For 
careful students, at least, this is a distinct loss. Apart from this, however, 
the book is to be recommended to those who do not care to use the larger 

works of Gratz and Schiirer. 

S. M. 

The Epistles of St. Paul to the Xhessalonians, Galatians, and Romans. By the 

late Benjamin Jowett, M.A. Third edition, edited and condensed by 
Lewis Campbell, M.A., LL.D. Vol. I., Translation and Notes; Vol. 
II., Essays and Discussions. London: John Murray. 

The first edition of Jowett's Commentary was published in 1855, and 
aroused a storm of indignant protest. Its free handling of Paul's eschatological 
views, and its position — at that time advanced — upon the whole matter of 
interpretation, gave great offense to many English scholars. The second 
edition published in 1859 did not greatly mend matters and was long ago out 
of print, for the busy life of its author forbade further revision. The present 
edition is, however, published with his assent, and, to a certain degree, with his 

The editor states that he has not changed "a single line" of the work. 
His office has been (1) to substitute a more recent text for that of Lachmann 
which Professor Jowett originally used ; and (2) to make certain omissions 
and new arrangement. It is worth notice that the omission of certain char- 
acteristic outbursts of the author against a "crude phrase of contemporary 
theology," and the excursus on the Conversion of St. Paul, have been 
omitted by Professor Jowett's own decision. 

The value of these commentaries, apart from the somewhat unusual 
insight possessed by a scholar of Jowett's type, lies not so much in the intro- 
duction, and in exegesis, as in the various discussions on subjects connected 
with the text. Thus, in his introduction to the Galatian Epistle, Professor 
Jowett settles in a single sentence the location of Galatia, but adds a striking 
essay upon the Character of St. Paul and another on the Quotations from 
the Old Testament in the Writings of St. Paul. The exegetical purpose of 
the first volume is, in fact, quite subordinate to the critical and theological.